Student Satisfaction and Learning Outcomes in E-Learning: An Introduction to Empirical Research

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To show the aspects that may characterize LMS in e-learning management, we used the categories proposed by Roque et al. This section presents the fourth and fifth steps of the integrative review, i. In this integrative review fourteen papers which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were analyzed. Regarding the year of publication, it is noted that no records were found previous to Most publications are from , and no papers were found, possibly due to issues related to deadlines for the publication in journals indexed by the bases used in this analysis.

According to Gil , this type of research is characterized by the direct interrogation of persons of whom you want to know the behavior. Information about the problem studied is requested by a significant group of individuals, in order to be able to obtain conclusions corresponding to the data collected through quantitative analysis. The papers by Louw et al. The papers by Masiello, Ramberg and Lonka , Lonn and Teasley and Jud and Kennedy included in the evaluation the vision of teachers or instructors. The paper by Macfadyen and Dawson sought to investigate the prediction of academic performance in relation to activities undertaken by students online.

According to Gil , a case study is characterized by the exhaustive and deep study of one or a few objects so that it is possible to acquire a broad and detailed knowledge of the object, in which multiple sources of evidence are used. The papers by Boumarafi and Ritchie attempted to investigate the relationship between the integration of libraries and virtual and learning environments in two separate contexts. The publication by Calvani et al. To Gil , the experiment comprises determining an object of study, selecting the variables that would be capable of influencing it, setting controlling and observation ways that a variable is produced in the object.

Table 3 lists the year, the authors and the LMS that each paper presented as a context for data collection, case study or as an environment to experiment:. It was observed that the metacognitive integration proposed by Sanchez-Vovides and Alonso can be implemented in any LMS, so the authors do not mention a specific LMS. Chang et al. The work of Louw et al. Ritchie indicates that a new LMS focused on the context specificities of his study will be deployed.

The study by Judah and Kennedy as well as the work of Louw et al. Table 4 lists the papers classified according to the categories proposed by Roque et al. After analyzing the papers, it was observed that all of them deal with some issue related to e-learning management, insofar as they discuss topics in the Coordination category or in the Administrative Support category or both categories, demonstrating the papers adherence to the search criteria adopted for this review.

Despite of this, administrative or system management issues showed operational focus rather than LMS strategic matters, which could have also been studied by the keywords used for the searches. This is evident to the extent that, for example, the same papers deal with issues of the Navigation or Didactic Resources categories, focusing on the system's functional aspects rather than its use for course planning or performance monitoring supported by an LMS.

Issues related to the e-learning planning or strategy was not considered a central theme in none of the studies. Also there was no evident relationship between the study category and the research design. The papers that dealt with the least number of categories two were the ones by Boumarafi and Ritchie The remaining papers had three to five categories.

The relatively high number of categories discussed in the papers expresses a tendency to discuss LMS from a systemic perspective. These papers involve the definition of performance measures for e-learning, the systematic verification of actual performance of learning activities, the comparison between the patterns and planned objectives and effectively observed performance, even though they not established corrective measures in case of significant deviations.

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An example of this, in the study by Graf, Liu and Kinshuk , the navigational behavior of students in an online course within a learning management system was investigated, looking at how students with different learning styles prefer to use and learn in such a course. These papers are geared towards a vision of the future where objectives are specified, strategies defined and actions are taken to achieve them. Planning allows e-learning managers to focus their actions on specific purposes, allowing them to concentrate their activities on what is most critical in the context of each course.

As an example, the study by Chang et al. Only the study by Louw et al. The article discusses practices of distribution of tasks and Information and Communication Technologies resources ICT among students of social sciences from South African universities.

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The research conclusions point out that the students in South Africa, in most cases, are not resistant to the adoption of ICTs, but feel constrained by practical issues such as the lack of infrastructure, support and time. The article clarifies people management processes in e-learning, specifically with the motivation of the students facing a prototype that integrates a 3D game with the LMS Moodle, making possible the exchange of information between the two systems.

It is emphasized that this function requires more action than planning and organization because the manager has the responsibility to provide a favorable environment to the implementation of a quality work and in which workers feel satisfied. The authors conclude that identifying and detecting such emotional factors in interactions with video games and their consequences in the learning process seem to be a key to improving collaboration among members, motivating activities, and promoting learning.

The 14 analyzed studies highlight administrative functions seen as an isolated manner, focusing on control. The papers that discuss planning or are directed only at Blackboard two papers or are directed at any LMS.

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It is also noteworthy that few papers put as a central element the administrative functions of organization and managing, revealing possibilities not yet explored for research, which will be outlined below. In this section, the sixth step of the integrative review is depicted, i. In this study, the integrative review method was used to map the studies in the Web of Science, Scopus, Ebsco and Scielo databases, regarding the use of LMS in the e-learning management. The analysis focused on categories that can characterize the scientific production about the LMS use in the e-learning management.

The development of this work allowed: 1 to observe the evolution of research; and 2 to identify possible trends of growth in the number of scientific papers dealing with the subject.

It was possible to outline the historical behavior of scientific production and realize that there is growing academic interest from different countries England, Spain, USA, South Africa, Australia and United Arab Emirates to develop research related to themes adjacent to this integrative review. This article also identified authors, objectives and designs of the researches that are being carried out on the subject of this integrative review.

The list of journals presented in this work allows researchers to, for example, know where to start the deepening of research on the subject and know what are the main publications related. The LMS that each paper presented as context for data collection, case study or as a system for experiment constituted as objects of analysis.

Also in relation to the categories, the interface was the less frequent in the papers analyzed, while the Didactic Resources was the most frequent. The studies approach the administrative functions on a non-integrated manner and focusing educational information. The e-learning management information remain on the margins of the discussion, which may represent interesting opportunities for research in this field.


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It is also noticed that, even though having some tools to manage the e-learning courses, that is not an easy or ordinary task. Most managers use LMS only for operational needs or just to issues directly related to control the learning of the students. In contrast, LMS does not provide an adequate tool for management to analyze so many data. In this sense, Learning analytics, which is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of data about learners and their contexts, for purposes of understanding and optimizing learning and the environments in which it occurs, emerges as a fundamental need in the context of studies on LMS.

Also, the resources. This review also revealed that there is a lack of clear theoretical definitions on the relationship between the LMS and the e-learning management. It was noticed that different technological platforms are treated in a generic way and that there is few empirical research focused on the topic. The analyzed research approach superficially the theme and don't respond, actually, the IT management issues when utilized as a support to the managers of e-learning, supporting the view of Bach, Domingues and Walter Questions like "how LMS influenced the e-learning planning, direction, execution and control from the manager perspective?

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Student Satisfaction and Learning Outcomes in E-Learning : An Introduction to Empirical Research

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Implications of E-learning systems and self-efficiency on students outcomes: a model approach

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